Popular TV shows such as “Criminal Minds” and “CSI” have created specific notions about forensic psychology and criminal psychology. This has led to some misconceptions about the day-to-day work of forensic psychologists and criminal psychologists, both of whom are important in law enforcement. While both jobs are exciting and offer variety in their daily tasks, environments, and clients, it is important for all prospective criminal and forensic psychologists to have a clear understanding of each profession before diving into a degree program.
While real life isn’t always as glamorous as TV, those hoping to work in either of these professional capacities can expect to make meaningful contributions to the safety of the community through an understanding of the mechanics of crime.
While there are many similarities between these jobs, there are also distinct differences between forensic and criminal psychologists, including the roles they play in law enforcement, the education required, and the career possibilities. Those considering either of these professional paths should acquaint themselves with these differences, as well as how each profession operates in law enforcement and the criminal justice system.
Criminal psychology overview
Criminal psychologists seek to understand the motivations of criminals and develop a psychological profile to understand or apprehend them. They examine individual criminal behaviors and diagnose any mental health conditions. They frequently step into the courtroom to provide expert testimony. Other duties include counseling individuals who have committed crimes or evaluating their risk of recidivism.
Becoming a criminal psychologist requires a doctorate in psychology and a license to practice. These professionals have usually completed postdoctoral studies or research in criminal behavior or profiling. Criminal psychologists often come from a law enforcement background, bringing skills learned in the field to graduate programs, where they refine their psychological profiling abilities.
There are many other positions in this field, however, and many who study criminal psychology go on to work in social service or in a field related to law enforcement, often as corrections and probation officers, or as police, fire, emergency, and ambulance dispatchers.
Criminal psychology salaries and job outlook
PayScale.com reports the average criminal psychologist’s salary is around $58,000 as of August 2019. Although the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) does not keep specific data on criminal psychologists, it projects employment for psychologists of all kinds to grow 14% from 2016 to 2026, much faster than the national average for all occupations (7%). Opportunities in the field and the average rate of pay vary across the country and in conjunction with individual experience.
Other jobs in this field, like probation officers and correctional treatment specialists, offer $53,020 annually according to the BLS, while jobs like police, fire, and ambulance dispatchers are growing at an average rate, and pay $40,660 annually.
Forensic psychology overview
To understand the difference between a criminal psychology and forensic psychology degree, it’s important to understand how each field fits in the criminal justice system as a whole. Forensic psychology is a broad field that applies the principles of psychology to the criminal justice system and law. Forensic psychologists consult with law enforcement to integrate psychology into both criminal and civil legal matters. Their duties can include selecting juries, evaluating witnesses, and conducting mental health evaluations.
During undergraduate study, many forensic psychologists major in psychology or forensic psychology and go on to complete internships and postgraduate training in law enforcement. Becoming a forensic psychologist requires a PhD or a Doctor of Psychology (PsyD), though there are many entry-level opportunities in the field, including as a victim advocate, corrections specialist, or probation officer. In these professional paths, individuals can gain a thorough understanding of the philosophy, standards, and processes of the judicial system.
Forensic psychology salaries and job outlook
PayScale.com reports the average forensic psychologist’s salary is around $67,000 as of August 2019. Again, while the BLS doesn’t keep data on this specific profession, it projects employment for psychologists of all kinds to grow 14% from 2016 to 2026.
There are multiple possible jobs available for those wishing to work in this field, including forensic psychologist and forensic psychiatrist. While each of these roles requires a doctorate, with an online Bachelor of Arts in Forensic Psychology, graduates can pursue entry-level work in corrections, law enforcement, social work, or psychiatry.
Similarities between criminal psychology and forensic psychology
Criminal psychology and forensic psychology are both strongly connected to law enforcement. Each profession supports investigations, whether criminal or civil. It’s the aim of professionals in both fields to work with law enforcement to understand the psychology of criminals and solve crimes. Professionals in each of these fields benefit from academic study and practical experience in criminal justice.
Differences between criminal psychology and forensic psychology
When comparing criminal psychology vs. forensic psychology, it’s important to understand key differences, both between the careers themselves and the typical paths that lead to each. From the education required to what their daily work looks like, there are some points of divergence between these two paths.
An undergraduate degree in forensic psychology, such as Maryville University’s online Bachelor of Arts in Forensic Psychology, equips students with an education that blends psychology, social science, and criminal justice, giving them a comprehensive understanding of the modern forensic psychology landscape.
Although both criminal and forensic psychologist roles require advanced education, there are many opportunities for those who do not want to earn a PhD or PsyD. Students with a bachelor’s degree may find work in corrections or advocacy, for example.
In contrast, the criminal psychology field focuses more specifically on understanding the mind of a criminal. Criminal psychology courses often include abnormal behavior, substance abuse patterns, behavioral statistics, and adolescent psychology. Criminal psychology is typically not offered as a degree program itself but rather as a part of a bachelor’s, master’s, or doctoral program in criminology or psychology.
Career path and scope
While criminal psychology focuses on criminal behavior, forensic psychology includes criminal and civil law, work in prisons, at-risk youth counseling, and academic research.
Forensic psychology requires the assessment of a wide array of people, including victims of crime, witnesses, attorneys, and law enforcement. Graduates of forensic psychology degree programs can also become jury consultants, juvenile offenders counselors, expert witnesses, and more. Those who go on to earn an advanced degree may become forensic psychologists or even forensic psychology professors.
Graduates of criminal psychology programs work specifically with criminals and those investigating them in the justice system, as opposed to victims or juries. Aspiring criminal psychologists may find work in corrections, criminal profiling, and psychology. In each of these fields, criminal psychology majors are able to flex critical thinking and observational skills to meet legal protocol as well as work with individuals with mental health disorders, keeping them safe, as well as the community at large.
Geriann Brandt: Welcome, and thank you very much for your interest in Maryville University. You’ve made this incredibly brave decision about pursuing your career, especially online, and your education, which is going to be so important to your future. My name is Gerriann Brandt. I am a former St. Louis County police officer here in the state of Missouri, and I am also the director of the criminal justice criminology program here.
So some of the career opportunities with this program of criminal justice criminology, aside from law enforcement is victim advocacy centers, FBI, secret service, US marshals, of course, and many, many have gone on to graduate school and to law school because it’s not just law enforcement. It is a myriad of different pathways that you can go on
Right now, especially in our society, we’re seeing a lot of spotlights and media looking at police culture, police traditions, and the citizen encounters with the community. I cannot express to you how important it is to have a very good handle on the criminal justice system before you go out into the community, whether you’re a social worker, whether you’re a police officer or whether you’re a counselor. All of this information is going to be embedded in you through these classes. You will have an incredible understanding of how the criminal justice system works, police, courts and corrections. That’s the system itself.
Maryville University’s criminal justice program is absolutely amazing, and I’ll tell you why. Every single adjunct that teaches for me or professor is either currently in the law enforcement field, the criminal justice field, or is an attorney. I want my students to see exactly what I saw as a police officer in St. Louis County Police Department. So they’ve given me this incredible luxury of developing very unique classes for you. One is criminal investigation. Another is criminal behavior, which is probably one of my favorites.
I was an adult student when I came back to Maryville, then I had one professor who I’ll never forget, Dr. Sheila Free. This professor showed me there’s so much I didn’t know that I didn’t know. And in the long run, we became friends, but she reached out to me and made me feel so important and made me feel that I really mattered. I love my students. I’m very happy to be here. I’m very blessed to have this job, and I want you to have the same experience that I did as an adult learner at Maryville University. I want to show that we do care about you.
This is where you definitely have a desire, a very strong desire to make a significant difference in your community by wearing that uniform and taking the oath that you are not above the law, but you’re going to support the law, and that was what we’re seeing right now in the media. We need officers that will support and uphold the law to its nth degree, the rule of law.
The Non-police Academy track, this is what you’re going to do with your degree. I encourage you to go onto graduate school, but you could also go, like I’ve mentioned, and go into law school, having that background of criminal law, of police procedures, of multicultural policing, and how do detectives investigate certain crimes, that is great information if you wanted to be a defense attorney or a prosecutor.
What does it mean to be brave as a criminal justice criminology student? First of all, I admire you and I applaud you because of the spotlight that is on the criminal justice system, not just the police, but the police courts and the corrections. Even if you’re not in the Police Academy track, if you’re on the Non-police Academy track, having a degree in criminal justice criminology, especially from Maryville, it’s going to take you a long way, and you’re going to have more information and more of a wider knowledge base regarding your rights as a citizen, regarding how the criminal law works, multicultural policing, juvenile delinquency. So do you have to be brave in? This particular degree, more so than any.
So as you prepare for your criminal justice education and the whole experience itself, just remember that your academic advisor’s amazing. They’re going to help you through this. You’re not going to be alone. It’s a wonderful resource to tap into. So at Maryville University, we are incredibly committed to your success. And on behalf of faculty and staff, I look forward to helping you strengthen your goals, your skills in this amazing, outstanding program that we have here. I’m very proud of it, and I hope to see you in it soon.
Criminal psychology vs. forensic psychology: Which is right for you?
Those excited by understanding the inner workings of a criminal’s mind, including motivation, mental health, and background, should consider pursuing a career in criminal psychology. Alternatively, individuals with an interest in the justice system and the many applications of psychology within it should consider pursuing a degree in forensic psychology.
Forensic psychology degrees offer a broad range of coursework in psychology, criminal justice, and social science, helping students expand their expertise and prepare to apply their education in a wider range of fields, including policing, law, corrections, and social services.
Through Maryville University’s online Bachelor of Arts in Forensic Psychology, you’ll build a foundation to apply the science of the mind in the court system and beyond. This program blends experiential learning opportunities and practical coursework to give you a comprehensive understanding of today’s forensic psychology landscape.